Spinal Stenosis

Stenosis is a pathological narrowing of spinal channel usually because of aging and dystrophic changes in a backbone. Traumas and wear of spine column lead to protruding of intervertebral disks. Ligaments are thickened, intervertebral joints extend. Pathological changes press on brain, roots of nerves. The stenosis develops most often in lumbar department, causes an onychalgia and pain in loin, causing lameness. People after 60 years old usually suffer from it.

Sometimes the insignificant tilt forward takes out a pain syndrome. The spinal channel thus extends, improves blood supply of nervous structures.

Characteristic symptoms of narrowing of the spinal cord channel is heaviness in feet, feeling of pain and weakness during walking or even at long standing, the local dorsodynia and feet which are often passing after short rest.

There is a set of methods of stenosis treatment. Rather simple manipulations can help like a correct alternation of exercise stresses and rest. Performance of special exercises complex is useful. Anesthetics liquidate a pain syndrome; however they don’t stop development of the disease.

For improvement of a cartilages supply cartilage protectors are prescribed. They slow down and prevent destruction of cartilage, reduce arthrosis symptoms.

Surgical treatment is applied at weakness in feet, insufferable back pain, pains at walking, constipations or problems with emiction.

Backbone Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is pathology of spine column, displacement of overlying vertebra body in relation to underlying. The lumen of the vertebral channel is narrowed; roots of spinal nerves are injured.

Congenital anomalies of backbone or the acquired defects become the cause. The disease often arises in professional athletes who excessively bend the backbone. The spondylolisthesis can develop in elderly people or patients with inflammatory diseases of backbone joints. The spondylolisthesis is also caused by a direct injury of a spine column.

Symptoms of a spondylolisthesis depend on department of a backbone where it arose. At a cervical spondylolisthesis there is a neck pain, with extension to arms and an upper back. Headaches and attacks of giddiness which aggravate at exercise stress are frequent. The spondylolisthesis of lumbar department is more often than other forms, it is shown by poorly expressed pain in the bottom of the back which abruptly aggravates at the attempt to do the exercises on backbone stretching. Flexibility of back is limited.

On initial stages spondylolisthesis of backbone is treated conservatively. A short course of anti-inflammatory medicines which helps to abirritate pain and unpleasant symptoms quickly is prescribed. Muscle relaxant is prescribed In the presence of expressed under observation of the doctor.

Physiotherapeutic treatment eliminates signs of nerves inflammation, stimulates back muscles. At spondylolisthesis gymnastic exercises are also prescribed. Their purpose is a development of back muscles which will be able to support the changed vertebrae. Exercises are selected individually, excluding capable to provoke stretching of tissues of spine column.


Spondylosis is an emergence at edges of vertebrae bodies of the osteal growths called osteophytes. The disease is also called a deforming spondylosis. Its main cause is a backbone osteochondrosis. At osteochondrosis properties of intervertebral disks (elasticity, durability) worsen, their height decreases. The thinned disk is displaced; the inflammatory reactions causing thickening of vertebrae bone tissue develop. Then there calcium salts are postponed (ossification).

Osteophytes can arise also owing to spine injuries. At partial tear of ligaments there is an inflammation and a spondylosis. Not the last role chronic fine damages at workers of physical work play, athletes. Advanced age, increased weight belongs to risk factors. Emergence of osteophytes partly stabilizes a backbone. Regional growths interfere with further shift of the deformed vertebrae.

The main symptoms of a spondylosis – the local pain giving extremities, a neck, the head (depends on localization of a spondylosis); decrease of mobility of a backbone; reflex strain of muscles.

In hard cases osteal growths grow together among themselves, leading to a perfect immovability of a backbone. It is followed by a strong strain of muscles, intensifying of pain.

Illness arises in a neck or a loin more often, and is usually limited to limits of 1-3 vertebrae. On x-ray films osteophytes are well visible. Spondylosis is an irreversible disease.

Conservative treatment of a spondylosis is referred on elimination of pain, putting off of an inflammation, expansion of movements in a backbone, activation of a local metabolism. The physiotherapy, massage, physiotherapy exercises are useful.


Scoliosis is a curvature of spine column sideways. Normally there are flexures forward and backwards, the lateral flexure of backbone appears only at pathology. It is cosmetic defect and a serious problem for health. At rachiocampsis internals suffer. In men exercise stresses tolerance decreases; women have problems with carrying of a pregnancy, child-bearing.

Scoliosis may be congenital and acquired. Many diseases – osteoporosis at rachitis, calcium deficiency in nutrition, osteomyelitis, dystrophic changes of musculation, spine injury, tubercular damages of vertebrae, backbone tumors are the causes of the acquired form.

The larger group of scoliosis causes is not connected with backbone. These are injuries of pelvis and feet, constant wrong posture in children, illnesses of internals with asymmetrical localization of pain, myosites, burns and cicatrix of soft tissues.

Scoliosis may be cervical, thoracic, and lumbar. Distinguish C-like scoliosis with one arch, S-like with two arches and Z-like with three arches. Existence of many arches has compensatory character. Scoliosis are subdivided on compensated and non-compensated, stable (decrease in lying position) and unstable.

Treatment of scoliosis is carried out conservatively and promptly. Conservative methods include drug treatment, physiotherapeutic procedures, massage, and manual therapy. They are effective for patients till twenty years old when formation of backbone is still proceeding. The good result is reached with correcting by of position – the best pose promoting normalization of a posture is found.

Backbone cancer

Backbone cancer proceeds extremely hard. There is a lot of causes of backbone cancer development: metabolic disturbances, viral infections, radiation, entering of substances carcinogens with nutrition and air, weakness of immune system which does not destroy pathological cells, spine injuries leading to disturbances of local blood supply.

Among local symptoms of backbone cancer the first place belongs to pain. When the cancer tumor invades nervous fibers, there is an intensive pain syndrome.

Also the shape of backbone is broken. Tumor is often palpated in the form of dense growth, and its growth leads to destruction of vertebrae, formation of disk hernias.

At lesion of spinal cord there are neurologic symptoms. Full or partial disturbances of sensitivity and movements develop. The higher is tumor locating, the more extensive is lesion zone.

Work of internals is broken. Disorder of innervation leads to disturbance of respiration, heart and digestive organs. Malnutrition, abrupt weakness develops in the patient.

It is possible to suspect backbone tumor with first symptoms, such as: not sharp pain, restraint of movements, and numbness of extremities. Often these symptoms are taken for radiculitis, osteochondrosis, as a result cancer is treated incorrectly and it progresses.

For cancer therapy only methods of modern scientific medicine are effective. The main of them is radical surgery. An important point at treatment is anesthesia. Pain may be so severe that narcotics – promedol, morphine are prescribed.

If to carry out a proper treatment opportunely, it is possible to achieve convalescence, vocational rehabilitation.


Radiculitis is an inflammatory process in spinal nerves roots. Inherently radiculitis is compression of nervous fibers in backbone openings. Primary radiculitis develops at lesion of nerves tissue with viral infection. The virus with a blood extends, gets into nervous roots. A typical example: shingles at which pain is followed by dermal rashes.

The secondary radiculitis develops at pathological changes of a backbone, such as osteochondrosis. It doesn’t cause an inflammation, but complications of osteochondrosis cause a radiculitis.

The radiculitis happens lumbar, sacral, cervical, and thoracic. Most often the lumbar radiculitis meets, the radiculitis of a neck is more rare, and thoracic – seldom or never.

The radiculitis proceeds acutely or chronically. The main symptom of this pathology is pain. It at a radiculitis depends on localization. In a loin there can be a feeling of “lumbago”. Usually pain arises in a limited place, it is not acute, aching in the beginning. Further pain amplifies, becomes intensive, burning, extends along nervous roots.

There are disturbances of movements, sensitivities. The animal force of extremities, volume of movements decreases. Muscles of a loin and feet are strained, a gait is broken. At the started uncured radiculitis the atrophy of muscles, a skin thinning, lack of hair, development of trophic ulcers becomes perceptible.

Treatment of a radiculitis includes medicines, physiotherapy exercises, massage, and physiotherapeutic procedures. Drug treatment is symptomatic, its purpose to eliminate pain and an inflammation. Injections and ointments which contain anesthetizing and anti-inflammatory agents are used.


At nephrolithiasis stones are formed in renal pelvis or minor calyces. Stones irritate urinary tract, occlusion of their lumen leads to inflating by liquid and atrophy of renal tissue. If the infection joins, there is a pyelonephritis. Infection and stone formation are interconnected processes. Bacteria become a core of stones formation and the stones irritating walls facilitate penetration of bacteria.

The disease causes a megalgia (attack of renal colic) in loin, along ureter, in genitals. Pain arises at disturbance of urine passage because of occlusion with stone. It is followed by frequent urodynia, nausea, vomiting, and fever. At full ureteral occlusion the emiction is impossible. Often there are a blood and pus in urine.

Anesthetics can help to weaken the pain at renal colic. They are used in combination to drugs which take out spasm of unstriated muscles. It is prohibited to try “to wash it up” with plentiful drink without exact determination of stone location and sizes. Such attempts lead to jamming of the stone.

It is important to keep a diet with having excluded some foodstuff. For dissolution of stones medicines are offered, their application requires medical observation. Fine stones can leave after relief of renal colic. Excision of large stones requires a surgery. The perspective direction is a lithotripsy (crushing of stones with ultrasound).

Antibiotics, sulfanilamide, nitro furans are prescribed against infection.


Pyelonephritis is an infectious acute or chronic inflammation of renal pelvis caused by bacteria, usually coli bacillus.

Urine of the healthy person is sterile however bacteria can get from intestine, genitals, or with blood lymph. Development of pyelonephritis is promoted by blocking of urine outflow.

More often children, 18-30-year-old women, elderly men suffer from pyelonephritis. It also can be caused by urolithiasis proceeding with renal colic. The probability of pyelonephritis grows at decrease in immunity, avitaminosis, diabetes mellitus, and tuberculosis.

At acute pyelonephritis temperature suddenly increases, there are fever, expressed weakness, headache, intense diaphoresis, sometimes nausea and vomiting. There is a back pain, unilateral in most cases. Pain has a blunt character, its intensity is various. If the disease arose at urolithiasis, emergence of pyelonephritis is preceded by the attack of renal colic.

The acute pyelonephritis will be transformed in chronic form without treatment; kidney pyesis, which is shown by appreciable aggravation of symptoms and sharp temperature drops (35°C – 40°C), may develop.

Chronic pyelonephritis disturbs the patient with persistent dull aching pain with localization in loin. It is aggravated in cold weather. Sometimes the disease leads to permanent increase of arterial pressure. Chronic pyelonephritis is disposed to become regularly aggravated.

Prophylaxis of pyelonephritis consists of treatment of the disease which has led to it – urolithiasis, prostate adenomas.

Spinal fracture

Spinal fracture is a severe injury. Damage of vertebrae is often combined with destruction of other structures – muscles, vessels, nerves, spinal cord. It threatens the patient’s life.

In most cases vertebrae are damaged in healthy people, when falling on place or from height, direct kicks. But at osteoporosis (decrease of bones density) even a minimum impact leads to damage of vertebrae.

Symptoms of spinal fracture depend on its locating. There is a sharp pain which aggravates at movements, visible deformation of spine column. Soft tissues are hydropic, damages of skin are often noticeable, sometimes there is bleeding.

The main problem at spinal fracture is injury of spinal cord. Its injuries have a character of concussions, crushes, complete transversal separation. They are always followed by sensitive and motive disturbances – partial or complete (paralysis). The higher injury level of spinal cord the more disorders are dangerous. Fracture in lower thoracic department leads to paralysis of feet, and fracture of the upper thoracic will paralyze also body muscles. Cervical injuries cause a full immovability and impossibility of respiration because of phrenoplegia.

The crucial role is played by the first aid. Life of the patient and his convalescence depends on timeliness and literacy of its rendering. Incorrectly given help aggravates the state.

It is necessary to lay and transport the injured person correctly – only on rigid stretcher, lying on back. Shifting of the patient is carried out by group of three people. It is forbidden to pull the patient’s extremities, allow him to move. It is prohibited to carry out unassisted reset of broken vertebrae.


Osteochondrosis is a degeneration and dysgraphia of joint cartilage. Most often osteochondrosis affects backbone. Between vertebrae elastic laying – intervertebral disks are located. They amortize and protect bodies of vertebrae from early wear. The liquid jelly-like core of the disk is surrounded with dense ring of connecting tissue.

A huge load falls on the disk; it is persistently damaged at the cellular level. In “orthograde” person these processes are much expressed. Not be destroyed completely, the disk has to be persistently restored. Balance of processes causes a normal structure of intervertebral disk. Therefore intervertebral disks are easily vulnerable. Under pressure of overlying vertebrae they slide in various directions, more often sideways and backwards. It is called a disk hernia.

Bone tissue of vertebrae, having lost cartilaginous laying is also exposed to mechanical wear. Because of permanent injuries osteal growths – osteophytes – on front surface of vertebrae are formed.

Lumbosacral department of backbone is affected more often; a large load falls on it.

Pain is a main symptom of osteochondrosis. It differs in variety and requires separate treating.

At treatment of osteochondrosis at first it is necessary to carry out anesthesia and remove the inflammation. Use tablets, ointments and injections.

Cartilage protectors help to improve metabolism in cartilages. Calcium drugs are used.

Having achieved remission physiotherapeutic procedures, physiotherapy exercises, and massage are prescribed to the patient.